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By the early s its popularity had spread, with grunge bands appearing in California, then emerging in other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals.

The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of rock music at the time [7] Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late s, they influenced modern rock music, as their lyrics brought socially conscious issues into pop culture [8] and added introspection and an exploration of what it means to be true to oneself.

Grunge fuses elements of punk rock , and heavy metal , such as the distorted electric guitar used in both genres, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other.

Like these genres, grunge typically uses electric guitar , bass guitar , a drummer and a singer. Grunge also incorporates influences from indie rock bands such as Sonic Youth.

Lyrics are typically angst-filled and introspective, often addressing themes such as social alienation , self-doubt , abuse , neglect , betrayal , social and emotional isolation , psychological trauma and a desire for freedom.

During the mid-to-late s , many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word "grunge":. In audio engineering , the term "dirty" or "fuzzy" describes "the opposite of clear, clean sound.

A dirty tone would have some amount of noise , distortion, or overdrive in the signal. Although the word "grunge" has been used to describe bands since the s, this was the first association of grunge with the grinding, sludgy sound of Seattle.

Evergreen State was a progressive college which did not use grading and which had its own alternative music radio station.

The term "Seattle sound" became a marketing ploy for the music industry. There are bands moving from L.

It really offends me. Some bands associated with the genre, such as Soundgarden, Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains, have not been receptive to the label, preferring instead to be referred to as " rock and roll " bands.

An Oral History of Grunge , pointed out vast differences between grunge bands, with some being punk and others being metal-based.

In the punk rock band Black Flag went visiting small towns across the US to bring punk to the more remote parts of the country.

By this time their music had become slow and sludgy, less like the Sex Pistols and more like Black Sabbath. Additionally, he noted that the augmented fifth note was used by Black Sabbath to produce an ominous feeling but it is not used in punk rock.

In the grunge film documentary Hype! The two pieces are only a few notes apart but sound completely unalike. Seattle music journalist Charles R. Cross defines "grunge" as distortion-filled, down-tuned and riff -based rock that uses loud electric guitar feedback and heavy, "ponderous" bass lines to support its song melodies.

Grunge fuses elements of punk rock specifically American hardcore punk such as Black Flag and heavy metal especially traditional, earlier heavy metal groups such as Black Sabbath , although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other.

Allmusic calls grunge a "hybrid" that blends elements of heavy metal and punk rock. However, grunge was "deeper and darker"-sounding than punk rock and it decreased the "adrenaline"-fueled tempos of punk to a slow, "sludgy" speed [32] and used more dissonant harmonies.

As well, VH1 writer Dan Tucker points out that different grunge bands were influenced by different genres. He stated that while Nirvana drew on punk, Pearl Jam was influenced by classic rock and "sludgy, dark, heavy bands" such as Soundgarden , Alice in Chains and Tad had a sinister metal tone.

Grunge music has what has been called an "ugly" aesthetic, both in the roar of the distorted electric guitars and in the darker lyrical topics.

This approach was chosen both to counter the "slick" elegant sound of the then-predominant mainstream rock and because grunge artists wanted to mirror the "ugliness" they saw around them and shine a light on unseen "depths and depravity" of the real world.

Grunge artists considered these bands "cheesy" but nonetheless enjoyed them; Buzz Osborne of the Melvins described it as an attempt to see what ridiculous things bands could do and get away with.

Grunge is generally characterized by a sludgy electric guitar sound with a "thick" middle register and rolled-off treble tone and a high level of distortion and fuzz, typically created with small s-style stompbox pedals, with some guitarists chaining several fuzz pedals together and plugging them into a tube amplifier and speaker cabinet.

Grunge guitarists were influenced by the raw, primitive sound of punk, and they favored " Grunge guitarists "flatly rejected" the virtuoso "shredding" guitar solos that had become the centerpiece of heavy metal songs, instead opting for melodic, blues -inspired solos — focusing "on the song, not the guitar solo".

Not all sources support the "grunge killed the guitar solo" argument. Sean Gonzalez states that Pearl Jam has plentiful examples of guitar solos.

Eric Clapton of grunge", a reference to the British blues guitarist [53] who Time magazine has named as number five in their list of "The 10 Best Electric Guitar Players".

The early Seattle grunge album Skin Yard recorded in by the band of the same name included fuzz bass overdriven bass guitar played by Jack Endino and Daniel House.

He uses four powerful Ampeg SVT -2 PRO tube amplifier heads, two of them plugged into four 1x18" subwoofer cabinets for the low register, and the other two plugged into two 8x10" cabinets.

In contrast to the "massive drum kits " used in s pop metal , [62] grunge drummers used relatively smaller drum kits. He uses a six-piece kit this way of describing drumkits counts only the wooden drums, and does not count the cymbals , including a "12x8-inch rack tom ; 13x9-inch rack tom; 16xinch floor tom ; 18xinch floor tom; 24xinch bass drum " and a snare drum and, for cymbals , Zildjian instruments, including " Although keyboards are generally not used in grunge, Seattle band Gorilla created controversy by breaking the "guitars only" approach and using a s-style Vox organ in their group.

The grunge singing style was similar to the "outburst" of loud, heavily distorted electric guitar in tone and delivery; Kurt Cobain used a "gruff, slurred articulation and gritty timbre" and Eddie Vedder of Pearl Jam made use of a "wide, powerful vibrato " to show his "depth of expression.

A number of factors influenced the focus on such subject matter. Many grunge musicians displayed a general disenchantment with the state of society, as well as a discomfort with social prejudices.

Grunge lyrics contained " Kids are depressed about the future". Steve Albini was another important influence on the grunge sound.

While multitracking results in a more polished product, it does not capture the "live" sound of the band playing together.

Albini used a range of different microphones for the vocals and instruments. Grunge concerts were known for being straightforward, high-energy performances.

Grunge shows were " Grunge performers viewed these elements unrelated to playing the music. Stage acting and "onstage theatrics" were generally avoided.

Instead the bands presented themselves as no different from minor local bands. Jack Endino said in the documentary Hype!

Can you be pure enough, day after day, year after year, to prove your authenticity , to live up to the music Clothing commonly worn by grunge musicians in Washington were a "mundane everyday style", in which they would wear the same clothes on stage that they wore at home.

This everyday clothing approach was used by grunge musicians because authenticity was a key principle in the Seattle scene.

Seattle and Aberdeen, Washington were logging towns and hence, the lumberjack attire was a common sight in the thrift stores for the low prices that musicians could afford.

It also runs against the grain of the whole flashy aesthetic that existed in the 80s. Bruce Pavitt really got him to dress up in flannel and a real chain saw and really play up this image of a mountain man and it worked.

Dazed magazine calls Courtney Love One of "ten women who defined the s" from a style perspective: Love has claimed that she took the style from Divinyls frontwoman Christina Amphlett.

It was completely counter to the shellacked, flashy aesthetic of the s in every way. In disheveled jeans and floral frocks, he softened the tough exterior of the archetypal rebel from the inside out, and set the ball in motion for a radical, millennial idea of androgyny.

Grunge music hit the mainstream in the early s with Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, and Nirvana being signed to major record labels.

Grunge fashion began to break into mainstream fashion in mid for both sexes and peaked in late and early In the fashion world, Marc Jacobs presented a show for Perry Ellis in , featuring grunge-inspired clothing mixed with high-end fabrics.

This shoot made McMenamy the face for grunge, as she had her eyebrows shaved and her hair cropped short. It made a statement.

Even though the grunge movement died down in after the death of Kurt Cobain, designers have continued to draw inspiration from the movement from time to time.

With Courtney Love as his muse for the collection, she reportedly loved the collection. Hedi knows his shit. He got it accurate, and MJ and Anna [Sui] did not.

Many music subcultures are associated with particular drugs, such as the hippie counterculture and reggae , both of which are associated with marijuana and psychedelics.

The poster was released the U. House stated that there was " Jeff Gilbert, one of the editors of Guitar World magazine, stated in that the media association of the Seattle grunge scene with heroin was "really overblown"; instead, he says that Seattle musicians were " Regarding graphic design and images, a common feature of grunge bands was the use of " lo-fi " low fidelity and deliberately unconventional album covers, for example presenting intentionally murky or miscolored photography, collage or distressed lettering.

Early grunge "[a]lbum covers and concert flyers appeared Xeroxed not in allegiance to some DIY aesthetic" but because of "economic necessity", as "bands had so little money".

A key figure in creating the "look" of the grunge scene for outsiders was music photographer Charles Peterson.

Following the s tradition of amateur, fan-produced zines in the punk subculture , members of the grunge scene also produced DIY publications which were "distributed at gigs or by mail order".

The zines were typically photocopied and contained handwritten, "hand-coloured pages", "typing errors and grammatical mistakes, misspellings and jumbled pagination", all proof of their amateur nature.

It stated that " Edited by Charles R. Dawn Anderson states that in , long before any other publication took notice of them, Soundgarden and Nirvana were Rocket cover stars.

Grunge lit is an Australian literary genre of fictional or semi-autobiographical writing in the early s about young adults living in an "inner cit[y]" " It was typically written by "new, young authors" [] who examined "gritty, dirty, real existences" [] of everyday characters.

It has been described as both a sub-set of dirty realism and an offshoot of Generation X literature. Black Flag and could match any male band in attitude and volume.

As well, women played an active role in the underground grunge scene, such as riot grrrls who produced zines about grunge bands and indie record labels e.

Nevermind reached number one in the U. Bands began to mix metal and punk in the Seattle music scene around , with much of the credit for this fusion going to The U-Men.

However the unique idiosyncrasy of the band may have been the bigger inspiration, more than the aesthetics themselves.

Outside the Pacific Northwest, a number of artists and music scenes influenced grunge. Through their patronage of Seattle bands, Sonic Youth "inadvertently nurtured" the grunge scene, and reinforced the fiercely independent attitudes of its musicians.

Several Australian bands, including The Scientists , Cosmic Psychos and Feedtime , are cited as precursors to grunge, their music influencing the Seattle scene through the college radio broadcasts of Sub Pop founder Jonathan Poneman and members of Mudhoney.

We used their sense of dynamics, being soft and quiet and then loud and hard. We just sort of abused it with pop songs and got sick with it.

From Punk to Grunge , cited Black Sabbath as "perhaps the most ubiquitous pre-punk influence on the northwest scene".

Strong states that " Cross states that grunge was the " This was grounded not only in his work with his band Crazy Horse and his regular use of distorted guitar—most notably on the album Rust Never Sleeps —but also his dress and persona.

The context for the development of the Seattle grunge scene was a ".. In , the band Green River released their debut EP Come on Down , which is cited by many as being the very first grunge record.

The record featured multiple tracks by six bands: For many of them it was their first appearance on record. The artists had "a mostly heavy, aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore".

The recording process was low-budget; each band was given four hours of studio time. These bands all have something in common. While music writer Michael Azerrad acknowledged that early grunge bands like Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Tad had disparate sounds, he noted "to the objective observer, there were some distinct similarities.

Grunge attracted media attention in the United Kingdom after Pavitt and Poneman asked journalist Everett True from the British magazine Melody Maker to write an article on the local music scene.

This exposure helped to make grunge known outside of the local area during the late s and drew more people to local shows.

Zeus de Smyrne , discovered in Smyrna in [1]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Zeus and Hera Main article: August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology v t e. Marble, middle 2nd century CE. Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos.

Lives of Eminent Philosophers. Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Word study tool of Ancient languages. De Natura Deorum , 3.

In Bekker, August Immanuel. At the Internet Archive. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Translated with an introduction by A.

A Study in Ancient Religion , I: Zeus God of the Bright Sky , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.

Zeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia can have been little more than a formula.

Cook , Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion , Vol. Westminster John Knox Press, Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 25 January The New York Times Company.

Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion , especially section III. A Study in Ancient Religion , 3 volume set , — Still the standard reference. Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: Evelyn-White , Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Mitford, William , The History of Greece , Rohde, Erwin , Psyche: Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zeus.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Retrieved from " https: God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, and justice.

Thunderbolt , eagle , bull , and oak. Hera and various others. This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Examples of taupe in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web The modern and luxurious rooms are decorated in relaxing white, gray, taupe and purple tones, and equipped with Wi-Fi.

Dusty gray-browns—colors with names like taupe , fawn or cocoa—are classic without seeming cold. First Known Use of taupe circa , in the meaning defined above.

Learn More about taupe. Resources for taupe Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Dictionary Entries near taupe Taunton Taunton turkey Taunus taupe taupe brown taupe gray taupe rose.

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He got it accurate, and MJ and Anna [Sui] did not. Many music subcultures are associated with particular drugs, such as the hippie counterculture and reggae , both of which are associated with marijuana and psychedelics.

The poster was released the U. House stated that there was " Jeff Gilbert, one of the editors of Guitar World magazine, stated in that the media association of the Seattle grunge scene with heroin was "really overblown"; instead, he says that Seattle musicians were " Regarding graphic design and images, a common feature of grunge bands was the use of " lo-fi " low fidelity and deliberately unconventional album covers, for example presenting intentionally murky or miscolored photography, collage or distressed lettering.

Early grunge "[a]lbum covers and concert flyers appeared Xeroxed not in allegiance to some DIY aesthetic" but because of "economic necessity", as "bands had so little money".

A key figure in creating the "look" of the grunge scene for outsiders was music photographer Charles Peterson. Following the s tradition of amateur, fan-produced zines in the punk subculture , members of the grunge scene also produced DIY publications which were "distributed at gigs or by mail order".

The zines were typically photocopied and contained handwritten, "hand-coloured pages", "typing errors and grammatical mistakes, misspellings and jumbled pagination", all proof of their amateur nature.

It stated that " Edited by Charles R. Dawn Anderson states that in , long before any other publication took notice of them, Soundgarden and Nirvana were Rocket cover stars.

Grunge lit is an Australian literary genre of fictional or semi-autobiographical writing in the early s about young adults living in an "inner cit[y]" " It was typically written by "new, young authors" [] who examined "gritty, dirty, real existences" [] of everyday characters.

It has been described as both a sub-set of dirty realism and an offshoot of Generation X literature. Black Flag and could match any male band in attitude and volume.

As well, women played an active role in the underground grunge scene, such as riot grrrls who produced zines about grunge bands and indie record labels e.

Nevermind reached number one in the U. Bands began to mix metal and punk in the Seattle music scene around , with much of the credit for this fusion going to The U-Men.

However the unique idiosyncrasy of the band may have been the bigger inspiration, more than the aesthetics themselves.

Outside the Pacific Northwest, a number of artists and music scenes influenced grunge. Through their patronage of Seattle bands, Sonic Youth "inadvertently nurtured" the grunge scene, and reinforced the fiercely independent attitudes of its musicians.

Several Australian bands, including The Scientists , Cosmic Psychos and Feedtime , are cited as precursors to grunge, their music influencing the Seattle scene through the college radio broadcasts of Sub Pop founder Jonathan Poneman and members of Mudhoney.

We used their sense of dynamics, being soft and quiet and then loud and hard. We just sort of abused it with pop songs and got sick with it. From Punk to Grunge , cited Black Sabbath as "perhaps the most ubiquitous pre-punk influence on the northwest scene".

Strong states that " Cross states that grunge was the " This was grounded not only in his work with his band Crazy Horse and his regular use of distorted guitar—most notably on the album Rust Never Sleeps —but also his dress and persona.

The context for the development of the Seattle grunge scene was a ".. In , the band Green River released their debut EP Come on Down , which is cited by many as being the very first grunge record.

The record featured multiple tracks by six bands: For many of them it was their first appearance on record. The artists had "a mostly heavy, aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore".

The recording process was low-budget; each band was given four hours of studio time. These bands all have something in common.

While music writer Michael Azerrad acknowledged that early grunge bands like Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Tad had disparate sounds, he noted "to the objective observer, there were some distinct similarities.

Grunge attracted media attention in the United Kingdom after Pavitt and Poneman asked journalist Everett True from the British magazine Melody Maker to write an article on the local music scene.

This exposure helped to make grunge known outside of the local area during the late s and drew more people to local shows. Grunge bands had made inroads to the musical mainstream in the late s.

Soundgarden, along with other major label signings Alice in Chains and Screaming Trees , performed "okay" with their initial major label releases, according to Jack Endino.

Nirvana got signed by Geffen Records in In September , Nirvana released its major label debut, Nevermind. The success of Nevermind surprised the music industry.

Nevermind not only popularized grunge, but also established "the cultural and commercial viability of alternative rock in general. Pearl Jam , which featured former Mother Love Bone members Jeff Ament and Stone Gossard , had released its debut album Ten in August , a month before Nevermind , but album sales only picked up a year later.

By the second half of Ten had become a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the Billboard charts.

There were several small roles, performances, and cameos in the film by popular Seattle grunge bands including Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, and Alice in Chains.

Filmed in and around Seattle in , the film was not released until during the height of grunge popularity. Critics asserted that advertising was co-opting elements of grunge and turning it into a fad.

This media hype surrounding grunge was documented in the documentary Hype! A backlash against grunge began to develop in Seattle; in late , Jonathan Poneman said that in the city, "All things grunge are treated with the utmost cynicism and amusement [.

The album sold a record , copies in its first week of release, topped the Billboard charts, and outperformed all other entries in the top ten that week combined.

This included San Diego , California -based Stone Temple Pilots , [] Texas-based Tripping Daisy [7] [] and Toadies , [] [] [] Paw , [] Chicago-based Veruca Salt , [] and Australian band Silverchair , bands whose early work continues to be identified broadly if not in Seattle itself as "grunge".

During this period, grunge bands that were not from Seattle were often panned by critics, who accused them of being bandwagon-jumpers.

Grunge band Stone Temple Pilots in particular fell victim to this. A Heavy Metal Odyssey in Rural North Dakota , Chuck Klosterman wrote, "Bush was a good band who just happened to signal the beginning of the end; ultimately, they would become the grunge Warrant ".

The Story of Grunge , Kyle Anderson wrote:. Just consider how many different bands and styles of music have been shoved under the "grunge" header in this discography alone, and you realize that grunge is probably the most ill-defined genre of music in history.

Critics and historians do not agree on the exact point that grunge ended. Pearl Jam retreating from the spotlight as fast as they could; Alice in Chains , Stone Temple Pilots and hordes of others were battling horrid drug addictions and struggling for survival.

During the mids many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. On April 8, , Kurt Cobain of Nirvana was found dead in his Seattle home from an apparently self-inflicted gunshot wound.

Strong states that Roy Shuker and Stout have written that the " During the latter half of the s, grunge was supplanted by post-grunge , which remained commercially viable into the start of the 21st century.

Post-grunge was a more commercially viable genre that tempered the distorted guitars of grunge with polished, radio-ready production.

Bands labeled as post-grunge that emerged when grunge was mainstream such as Bush , Candlebox and Collective Soul all are noted for emulating the sound of the bands that launched grunge into the mainstream.

In , SPIN writer Charles Aaron stated that with grunge "spent", pop punk in a slump, Britpop a "giddy memory" and album-oriented rock over, the music industry turned to "Corporate[-produced] Alternative", which he calls "soundalike fake grunge" or "scrunge".

Bands described as grunge like Bush [] [] [] and Candlebox [] also have been largely categorized as post-grunge. Perhaps not surprisingly, because these bands seemed to be merely ripping off a trendy sound, critics dismissed them as bandwagon-jumpers.

Tellingly, these bands were labeled almost pejoratively as "post-grunge," suggesting that rather than being a musical movement in their own right, they were just a calculated, cynical response to a legitimate stylistic shift in rock music.

Other bands categorized as post-grunge that emerged when Bush and Candlebox became popular include Collective Soul [] and Live. Conversely, another rock genre, Britpop , emerged in part as a reaction against the dominance of grunge in the United Kingdom.

In contrast to the dourness of grunge, Britpop was defined by "youthful exuberance and desire for recognition". Justine Frischmann , formerly of Suede and leader of Elastica and at the time in a relationship with Damon Albarn explained, "Damon and I felt like we were in the thick of it at that point Britpop artists were vocal about their disdain for grunge.

Many major grunge bands have continued recording and touring with success in the s and s. Perhaps the most notable grunge act of the 21st century has been Pearl Jam.

In Rolling Stone writer Brian Hiatt described Pearl Jam as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame", he noted the band developed a loyal concert following akin to that of the Grateful Dead.

One of the most successful rock groups of the 21st Century, Queens of the Stone Age , has featured major contributions from various grunge musicians.

Johannes also performed with the group as a touring member. In the early s, grunge would make multiple regionally based resurgences, albeit minor ones.

In , The Seattle Times made note of grunge-influenced groups returning in the Seattle scene. The s have birthed a number bands influenced by grunge.

Unlike their forebears, some of these acts ascribe the label to themselves willingly. Steve Albini has produced for or worked with members of bands such as Bully , [] [] Vomitface, [] [] [] and Shannon Wright , [] while Emma Ruth Rundle of Marriages [] has toured with Buzz Osborne of the Melvins.

Other notable acts that have been labelled as grunge or as heavily influenced by the grunge era, include Courtney Barnett , [] [] Wolf Alice , [] Yuck , [] Speedy Ortiz , [] Mitski , [] 2: Media outlets also began referring to a revival of the grunge sound around the mids, with the label being given to bands such as Title Fight [] [] InCrest [] Fangclub , [] Code Orange [] My Ticket Home , [] [] Citizen , [] Milk Teeth [] and Muskets ; [] [] [] some of which have been described as merging the genre with emo.

In , music critic Dave Whitaker wrote that each generation from the start of " However, he states "grunge was the last American musical revolution", as no post-grunge generation has introduced a new genre which radically changed the music scene.

Bob Batchelor states that the indie record mindset and values in Seattle which provided guidance for the development and emergence of Nirvana and Pearl Jam " In , John Calvert stated that "timing" is the reason why a grunge revival did not happen; he says that the cultural mood of the late s and early s, which inspired the movement, were no longer present.

McManus states that grunge dealt with serious, "weighty" topics, which does not occur often in popular music. McManus stated that for Generation X , grunge was not just music, it was a key cultural influence.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the music genre. For other uses, see Grunge disambiguation.

Subgenre of alternative rock. This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations.

Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. Of Grunge and Government: Edited by Jacqueline Edmondson. Retrieved May 27, The Story of Thrash Metal".

Retrieved November 9, Retrieved August 24, Retrieved February 8, With God on Our Side: Towards a Transformational Theology of Rock and Roll.

Wipf and Stock Publishers, Perone 17 October Retrieved 22 October The Words and Music of Alanis Morissette.

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Retrieved May 9, Daily Record Glasgow, Scotland. Together, Zeus, his brothers and sisters, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy.

The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas , one of the titans who fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.

After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon and Hades , by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead the underworld.

The ancient Earth, Gaia , could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" the god of earthquakes and Hades claimed the humans who died see also Penthus.

Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under Mount Etna , but left Echidna and her children alive.

When Cronus realized that he wanted power for the rest of time he started to eat his children, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon.

When Rhea realized what was going on, she quickly saved their youngest child, Zeus. Having escaped, Zeus was spared because of the swiftness of Rhea tricking Cronus into thinking she consumed Zeus.

She wrapped a stone in a blanket, and Cronus swallowed it thinking he was swallowing his last child. When Zeus was atop Mount Olympus he grew upset with mankind and the sacrifices they were performing on one another.

Furiously, he decided it would be smart to wipe out mankind with a gigantic flood using the help of his brother Poseidon , King of the Seas.

Killing every human except Deucalion and Pyrrha , Zeus flooded the entire planet but then realized he then had to restore society with new people.

After clearing all the water, he had Deucalion and Pyrrah create humans to repopulate the earth using stones that became humans.

These stones represented the "hardness" of mankind and the man life. This story has been told different ways and in different time periods between Ancient Greek Mythology and The Bible, although the base of the story remains true.

Throughout history Zeus has used violence to get his way, or even terrorize humans. As god of the sky he has the power to hurl lightning bolts as his weapon of choice.

Since lightning is quite powerful and sometimes deadly, it is a bold sign when lightning strikes because it is known that Zeus most likely threw the bolt.

As God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice, Zeus controlled ancient Greece and all of the mortals and immortals living there.

Notable Scenes that include Zeus [32] [33]. Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. Some also include Eileithyia , Eris , Enyo and Angelos as their daughters.

In the section of the Iliad known to scholars as the Deception of Zeus , the two of them are described as having begun their sexual relationship without their parents knowing about it.

Among mortals were Semele , Io , Europa and Leda for more details, see below and with the young Ganymede although he was mortal Zeus granted him eternal youth and immortality.

For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by talking incessantly, and when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others.

Zeus played a dominant role, presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults.

Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and the archetypal Greek deity.

Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity as doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority:.

The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games.

Outside of the major inter- polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor to Sicily.

Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: With one exception, Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort", [79] whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos "boy-Zeus" , often simply the Kouros.

In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at the Hagia Triada site of a long-ruined Minoan palace.

Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos show the form under which he was worshiped: The stories of Minos and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests.

On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult and hymned as ho megas kouros , "the great youth".

The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus , [84] together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees , suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.

The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion. The epithet Zeus Lykaios "wolf-Zeus" is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Mount Lykaion "Wolf Mountain" , the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia ; Zeus had only a formal connection [86] with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants.

Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended.

There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis ; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios.

Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground.

Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios "kindly" or "honeyed" while other cities had Zeus Chthonios "earthy" , Zeus Katachthonios "under-the-earth" and Zeus Plousios "wealth-bringing".

These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter , and also the heroes at their tombs.

Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars. In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus.

Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius "the nurturing" , depending on whether you believe Pausanias , or Strabo.

Ancient Molossian kings sacrificed to Zeus Areius. Strabo mention that at Tralles there was the Zeus Larisaeus. In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men.

With the epithet Zeus Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetna , where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor.

Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo , the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis , a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus.

The cult of Zeus at Dodona in Epirus , where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak.

When the Odyssey was composed circa BC , divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi , who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches.

Her status as a titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle.

Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War. Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta , where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War.

After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl.

Zeus was identified with the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination see interpretatio graeca with various other deities, such as the Egyptian Ammon and the Etruscan Tinia.

He, along with Dionysus , absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius.

The Cretan Zeus Tallaios had solar elements to his cult.

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