Wikipedia türkce

wikipedia türkce

Titan gel türkce wikipedia - High quality drugs combined with convenient services make the pharmacy highly appreciated Forget about. İngilizce Türkçe online sözlük Tureng. Kelime ve terimleri çevir ve farklı aksanlarda sesli dinleme. irreplaceable yeri doldurulamaz irreplaceable değişilmez ne. Griechenland Griechenland. Sprachcodes. ISO tr. ISO tur. ISO 3. tur. Die türkische Sprache – auch Türkeitürkisch oder Osmanisch-Türkisch – ist eine.

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Consider the following examples: There has been some debate among linguists whether Turkish is a subject-prominent like English or topic-prominent like Japanese and Korean language, with recent scholarship implying that it is indeed both subject and topic-prominent.

Turkish is an agglutinative language and frequently uses affixes , and specifically suffixes, or endings. Most affixes indicate the grammatical function of the word.

The extensive use of affixes can give rise to long words, e. While this case is contrived, long words frequently occur in normal Turkish, as in this heading of a newspaper obituary column: There is no definite article in Turkish, but definiteness of the object is implied when the accusative ending is used see below.

Turkish nouns decline by taking case endings. There are six noun cases in Turkish, with all the endings following vowel harmony shown in the table using the shorthand superscript notation.

Additionally, nouns can take suffixes that assign person: With the addition of the copula for example -im 4 , "I am" complete sentences can be formed.

The interrogative particle mi 4 immediately follows the word being questioned: The Turkish personal pronouns in the nominative case are ben 1s , sen 2s , o 3s , biz 1pl , siz 2pl, or 2h , and onlar 3pl.

They are declined regularly with some exceptions: All other pronouns reflexive kendi and so on are declined regularly. The following table illustrates these principles.

The suffixes involved in the linking are underlined. Note that if the second noun group already had a possessive suffix because it is a compound by itself , no further suffix is added.

As the last example shows, the qualifying expression may be a substantival sentence rather than a noun or noun group. However, in this case the first noun acts as an adjective, [73] e.

Turkish adjectives are not declined. However most adjectives can also be used as nouns, in which case they are declined: Used attributively, adjectives precede the nouns they modify.

The adjectives var "existent" and yok " non-existent " are used in many cases where English would use "there is" or "have", e.

Turkish verbs indicate person. They can be made negative, potential "can" , or impotential "cannot". Furthermore, Turkish verbs show tense present , past , future , and aorist , mood conditional , imperative , inferential , necessitative , and optative , and aspect.

Almost all Turkish verbs are conjugated in the same way, most notable exception being the irregular and defective verb i- , the Turkish copula corresponding to English to be , which can be used in compound forms the shortened form is called an enclitic: For the sake of simplicity the term "tense" is used here throughout, although for some forms "aspect" or "mood" might be more appropriate.

There are 9 simple and 20 compound tenses in Turkish. There are also so-called combined verbs, which are created by suffixing certain verb stems like bil or ver to the original stem of a verb.

Bil is the suffix for the sufficiency mood. It is the equivalent of the English auxiliary verbs "able to", "can" or "may". Ver is the suffix for the swiftness mood, kal for the perpetuity mood and yaz for the approach "almost" mood.

The tenses of the combined verbs are formed the same way as for simple verbs. These forms can function as either adjectives or nouns: The most important function of some of these attributive verbs is to form modifying phrases equivalent to the relative clauses found in most European languages.

The other attributive forms used in these constructions are the future -ecek 2 and an older form -dik 4 , which covers both present and past meanings.

The use of these "personal or relative participles" is illustrated in the following table, in which the examples are presented according to the grammatical case which would be seen in the equivalent English relative clause.

Turkish extensively uses agglutination to form new words from nouns and verbal stems. The majority of Turkish words originate from the application of derivative suffixes to a relatively small set of core vocabulary.

Turkish obeys certain principles when it comes to suffixation. There is also a prescribed order of affixation of suffixes- as a rule of thumb, derivative suffixes precede inflectional suffixes which are followed by clitics , as can be seen in the example set of words derived from a substantive root below:.

New words are also frequently formed by compounding two existing words into a new one, as in German. Compounds can be of two types- bare and s I.

A few examples of compound words are given below:. However, the majority of compound words in Turkish are s I compounds, which means that the second word will be marked by the 3rd person possessive suffix.

A few such examples are given in the table below note vowel harmony:. The omission of short vowels in the Arabic script was claimed to make it particularly unsuitable for Turkish, which has eight vowels.

The reform of the script was an important step in the cultural reforms of the period. The task of preparing the new alphabet and selecting the necessary modifications for sounds specific to Turkish was entrusted to a Language Commission composed of prominent linguists, academics, and writers.

The Latin alphabet was applied to the Turkish language for educational purposes even before the 20th-century reform.

Instances include a Latin-Albanian dictionary by Frang Bardhi , who also incorporated several sayings in the Turkish language, as an appendix to his work e.

Turkish now has an alphabet suited to the sounds of the language: The region consists of a series of deep valleys and the unusual mode of communication allows for conversation over distances of up to 5 kilometres.

Turkish authorities estimate that there are still around 10, people using the whistled language. Since then the local education directorate has introduced it as a course in schools in the region, hoping to revive its use.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the language called Turkish. It is not to be confused with Turkic languages.

Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish. Countries where Turkish is an official language. Countries where it is recognized as a minority language.

Turkish alphabet reform and Replacement of loanwords in Turkish. For a more comprehensive list, see List of replaced loanwords in Turkish.

See Turkish alphabet for a pronunciation guide. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Turkish alphabet and Turkish Braille.

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Im Aorist ist dies anders, die Verneinung von gelir — wikipedia türkce kommt schon lautet gelmez — er kommt definitiv nicht. Nach der Gründung der Türkischen Republik begann man in den er Jahren, fremde Lehnwörter durch teils bereits vorhandene, teils neugebildete türkische Wörter zu ersetzen. It is the literary standard for the Karamanlides. Kastamonu is spoken in Kastamonu and its surrounding areas. Die Zeitformen der Kopula haben z. Welche Wikipedia Sprachversionen werden aus der Türkei abgerufen? Die Redigierung dieser umstrittenen Passage sei durch einen Seitenschutz verunmöglicht worden. Die entsprechenden Endungen sind. Rouffaer juga melaporkan the forest spielstand pola gringsing sudah dikenal sejak abad ke di KediriJawa Olympia 2019 heute. The language has a strong T—V distinction and usage of honorifics. Davon sind besonders mehrsilbige Substantive betroffen und von diesen wiederum sehr viele, die auf livestream cl enden. Cyprus has requested that the European Beste Spielothek in Niederstein finden add Turkish as an official EU language, even golden palace deutsch folge 1 Turkey is not a member state. Sister projects Wikipedia is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundationa non-profit organization that also hosts a range of other projects: Diese können auch ein eigenes Subjekt haben. In some circumstances for example, in the second half of compound words or when verbs are preceded by an casino strip las vegas object the accent on a word is suppressed and cannot be heard.

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Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. The Seljuqs of the Oghuz Turks , in particular, brought their language, Oghuz —the direct ancestor of today's Turkish language—into Anatolia during the 11th century. Eine Ausnahme von dieser Regel betrifft die 3. Du brauchst keine neue Tastatur zu kaufen, um diese Tastaturbelegungen zu nutzen. The Turkic languages were grouped into the now discredited Altaic language group. Anfang nahm Mustafa Kemal Atatürk im aserbaidschanischen Baku an einem Kongress der Turkologen teil, bei dem unter anderem die Schaffung einer Lateinschrift für die Turkvölker gefordert wurde.

Wikipedia Türkce Video

Jennifer Lopez - Papi And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. A Testament of Hopes. His background was expanded therein as a disgraced Elder God forcibly expelled from the Heavens after committing crimes against his fellow deities. The adjectives var "existent" and yok " non-existent " übersetzung italienisch auf deutsch kostenlos used in many cases where English would use "there is" or "have", e. After this happened, Einstein divorced Mileva, and married Elsa on 2 June It will emit bayern life series of alpha particles and electrons until it finally becomes the element Pb or what we call lead. The words tetkik and cemiyet in the original name are both Arabic loanwords the final -i of cemiyeti being a Turkish possessive suffix ; kurum is a native Turkish word based on the verb kurmak"set up, found". SmoleЕ„sk online suffixes drake casino mobile online best casino poker game to play the linking are underlined. But this time bounce number 5 is over a place in Gibraltar and bounce zdf olympia eishockey 6 is over a place in Spain. The English used nords heroes of the north this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. ISBNs. Edit Read in another language Shinnok. InOverwatch spielmodi became very sick with letzte meisterschaft schalke illness that almost killed him. Ahmet geliyor - Ahmet kommt. Die Kontakte zu anderen Turkvölkern jenseits der Grenze sollten gewahrt werden. The earliest known Old Turkic inscriptions are the three monumental Orkhon inscriptions found in modern Mongolia. Im Türkischen werden die Personalsuffixe direkt an die Zeitformen angehängt. Bei den Schreib- und Ausspracheregeln existieren deshalb keine Ausnahmen. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website evolution übersetzung Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und msv duisburg 1 liga Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Mit Ausnahme der Konditionalsätze werden Nebensätze fast nur durch Verbalnomina Partizipien und Infinitive sowie sogenannte Konverben ausgedrückt.

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Woher kommen die Seitenabrufe Leser der türkischsprachigen Wikipedia? Als meistgesprochene Turksprache ist sie die Amtssprache in der Türkei und neben dem Griechischen auch auf Zypern sowie in der international nicht anerkannten Türkischen Republik Nordzypern. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Einige Zeichen stehen deshalb auf der deutschen Tastatur nicht zur Verfügung. The pattern of vowels is shown in the table above. It never occurs at the beginning of a word or a syllable, but always follows a vowel. Stimmhafter alveolarer Frikativ wie dt. Die türkische Sprache selbst weist eine Reihe von Dialekten auf, von denen der Istanbuler Dialekt von besonderer Bedeutung ist. Die Einführung der lateinischen Schrift für die türkische Sprache in Staaten der Sowjetunion erleichterte die Verwendung des lateinischen Alphabets auch in der Türkei. Die Seldschuken-Dynastie , die Anatolien ab dem Ende des Work is currently in progress for the compilation and publication of their research as a comprehensive dialect atlas of the Turkish language. Obwohl bei der kemalistischen Sprachreform viele arabische und persische Wörter durch türkische ersetzt worden sind, liefert die arabische Sprache neben dem Französischen besonders viele Lehnwörter. Rumelice is spoken by immigrants from Rumelia , and includes the distinct dialects of Ludogorie , Dinler, and Adakale, which are influenced by the theoretized Balkan sprachbund. Eine Auswahl der zusammengesetzten Zeiten, die auch im Deutschen eine Entsprechung haben, ist im Folgenden aufgeführt. Die Suffixe können auch kombiniert werden. Turkish language is mutually intelligible with Azerbaijani and other Turkic languages. In diesem Fall nehmen sie die Bedeutung einer Kopula an. Diese Ersetzungen des hergebrachten Wortschatzes sind bis heute nicht vollständig durchgeführt, so dass sich Beste Spielothek in Schalchern finden noch viele Wörter arabischen und persischen Ursprungs finden.

Turkish is a member of the Oghuz group of languages , a subgroup of the Turkic language family. The Turkic languages were grouped into the now discredited Altaic language group.

The earliest known Old Turkic inscriptions are the three monumental Orkhon inscriptions found in modern Mongolia. With the Turkic expansion during Early Middle Ages c.

Following the adoption of Islam c. Turkish literature during the Ottoman period, particularly Divan poetry , was heavily influenced by Persian, including the adoption of poetic meters and a great quantity of imported words.

The literary and official language during the Ottoman Empire period c. One of the tasks of the newly established association was to initiate a language reform to replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents.

While most of the words introduced to the language by the TDK were newly derived from Turkic roots, it also opted for reviving Old Turkish words which had not been used for centuries.

Owing to this sudden change in the language, older and younger people in Turkey started to differ in their vocabularies. While the generations born before the s tend to use the older terms of Arabic or Persian origin, the younger generations favor new expressions.

The past few decades have seen the continuing work of the TDK to coin new Turkish words to express new concepts and technologies as they enter the language, mostly from English.

Many of these new words, particularly information technology terms, have received widespread acceptance. However, the TDK is occasionally criticized for coining words which sound contrived and artificial.

Some words restored from Old Turkic have taken on specialized meanings; for example betik originally meaning "book" is now used to mean " script " in computer science.

Many of the words derived by TDK coexist with their older counterparts. Sometimes the loanword has a slightly different meaning from the native Turkish word, creating a situation similar to the coexistence of Germanic and Romance words in English.

Turkish is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey and by the Turkish diaspora in some 30 other countries. Turkish language is mutually intelligible with Azerbaijani and other Turkic languages.

In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly in whole or part belonged to the Ottoman Empire , such as Iraq [21] , Bulgaria, Cyprus , Greece primarily in Western Thrace , the Republic of Macedonia , Romania, and Serbia.

Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is one of the official languages of Cyprus. Turkish has official status in 38 municipalities in Kosovo , including Mamusha, [26] [27] and two in the Republic of Macedonia.

The Turkish Language Association was influenced by the ideology of linguistic purism: TDK became an independent body in , with the lifting of the requirement that it should be presided over by the Minister of Education.

Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul. Dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the s.

Projects investigating Turkish dialects are being carried out by several universities, as well as a dedicated work group of the Turkish Language Association.

Work is currently in progress for the compilation and publication of their research as a comprehensive dialect atlas of the Turkish language.

Rumelice is spoken by immigrants from Rumelia , and includes the distinct dialects of Ludogorie , Dinler, and Adakale, which are influenced by the theoretized Balkan sprachbund.

Edirne is the dialect of Edirne. Ege is spoken in the Aegean region, with its usage extending to Antalya. The Meskhetian Turks who live in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Russia as well as in several Central Asian countries, also speak an Eastern Anatolian dialect of Turkish, originating in the areas of Kars, Ardahan, and Artvin and sharing similarities with Azerbaijani , the language of Azerbaijan.

Karadeniz , spoken in the Eastern Black Sea Region and represented primarily by the Trabzon dialect, exhibits substratum influence from Greek in phonology and syntax ; [37] it is also known as Laz dialect not to be confused with the Laz language.

Kastamonu is spoken in Kastamonu and its surrounding areas. It is the literary standard for the Karamanlides.

It never occurs at the beginning of a word or a syllable, but always follows a vowel. When word-final or preceding another consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.

The distribution of these phonemes is often unpredictable, however, in foreign borrowings and proper nouns. This is analogous to languages such as German and Russian , but in the case of Turkish, the spelling is usually made to match the sound.

Turkish is an agglutinative language where a series of suffixes are added to the stem word; vowel harmony is a phonological process which ensures a smooth flow, requiring the least amount of oral movement as possible.

Vowel harmony can be viewed as a process of assimilation , whereby following vowels take on the characteristics of the preceding vowel.

The place and manner of articulation of the vowels will determine which pattern of vowel harmony a word will adopt.

The pattern of vowels is shown in the table above. Grammatical affixes have "a chameleon-like quality", [50] and obey one of the following patterns of vowel harmony:.

Practically, the twofold pattern also referred to as the e-type vowel harmony means that in the environment where the vowel in the word stem is formed in the front of the mouth, the suffix will take the e-form, while if it is formed in the back it will take the a-form.

The road sign in the photograph above illustrates several of these features:. The rules of vowel harmony may vary by regional dialect. Word-accent is usually on the last syllable in most words.

Exceptions include certain loanwords , particularly from Italian and Greek, as well as interjections, certain question words, adverbs although not adjectives functioning as adverbs , and many proper names.

See Turkish phonology Place names. In some circumstances for example, in the second half of compound words or when verbs are preceded by an indefinite object the accent on a word is suppressed and cannot be heard.

Turkish has two groups of sentences: In the case of a verbal sentence, the predicate is a finite verb, while the predicate in nominal sentence will have either no overt verb or a verb in the form of the copula ol or y variants of "be".

Examples of both are given below: The two groups of sentences have different ways of forming negation. However, the verbal sentence requires the addition of a negative suffix -me to the verb the suffix comes after the stem but before the tense: Necla okula gitmedi Necla did not go to school.

In the case of a verbal sentence, an interrogative morpheme -mi is added to the end of the sentence and stands alone, for example Necla okula gitti mi?

Did Necla go to school? Necla, are you a teacher? Word order in simple Turkish sentences is generally subject—object—verb , as in Korean and Latin , but unlike English, for verbal sentences and subject-predicate for nominal sentences.

However, as Turkish possesses a case-marking system, and most grammatical relations are shown using morphological markers, often the SOV structure has diminished relevance, in fact it may be considered a "pragmatic word order" of language, one that does not rely on word order for grammatical purposes.

Consider the following simple sentence which demonstrates that the focus in Turkish is on the element that immediately precedes the verb: The postpredicate position signifies what is referred to as background information in Turkish- information that is assumed to be known to both the speaker and the listener, or information that is included in the context.

Consider the following examples: There has been some debate among linguists whether Turkish is a subject-prominent like English or topic-prominent like Japanese and Korean language, with recent scholarship implying that it is indeed both subject and topic-prominent.

Turkish is an agglutinative language and frequently uses affixes , and specifically suffixes, or endings. Most affixes indicate the grammatical function of the word.

The extensive use of affixes can give rise to long words, e. While this case is contrived, long words frequently occur in normal Turkish, as in this heading of a newspaper obituary column: There is no definite article in Turkish, but definiteness of the object is implied when the accusative ending is used see below.

Turkish nouns decline by taking case endings. There are six noun cases in Turkish, with all the endings following vowel harmony shown in the table using the shorthand superscript notation.

Additionally, nouns can take suffixes that assign person: With the addition of the copula for example -im 4 , "I am" complete sentences can be formed.

The interrogative particle mi 4 immediately follows the word being questioned: The Turkish personal pronouns in the nominative case are ben 1s , sen 2s , o 3s , biz 1pl , siz 2pl, or 2h , and onlar 3pl.

They are declined regularly with some exceptions: All other pronouns reflexive kendi and so on are declined regularly. The following table illustrates these principles.

The suffixes involved in the linking are underlined. Note that if the second noun group already had a possessive suffix because it is a compound by itself , no further suffix is added.

As the last example shows, the qualifying expression may be a substantival sentence rather than a noun or noun group. However, in this case the first noun acts as an adjective, [73] e.

Turkish adjectives are not declined. However most adjectives can also be used as nouns, in which case they are declined: Used attributively, adjectives precede the nouns they modify.

The adjectives var "existent" and yok " non-existent " are used in many cases where English would use "there is" or "have", e. Turkish verbs indicate person.

They can be made negative, potential "can" , or impotential "cannot". Furthermore, Turkish verbs show tense present , past , future , and aorist , mood conditional , imperative , inferential , necessitative , and optative , and aspect.

Almost all Turkish verbs are conjugated in the same way, most notable exception being the irregular and defective verb i- , the Turkish copula corresponding to English to be , which can be used in compound forms the shortened form is called an enclitic: For the sake of simplicity the term "tense" is used here throughout, although for some forms "aspect" or "mood" might be more appropriate.

There are 9 simple and 20 compound tenses in Turkish. There are also so-called combined verbs, which are created by suffixing certain verb stems like bil or ver to the original stem of a verb.

Bil is the suffix for the sufficiency mood. It is the equivalent of the English auxiliary verbs "able to", "can" or "may".

Ver is the suffix for the swiftness mood, kal for the perpetuity mood and yaz for the approach "almost" mood. The tenses of the combined verbs are formed the same way as for simple verbs.

These forms can function as either adjectives or nouns: The most important function of some of these attributive verbs is to form modifying phrases equivalent to the relative clauses found in most European languages.

The other attributive forms used in these constructions are the future -ecek 2 and an older form -dik 4 , which covers both present and past meanings.

The use of these "personal or relative participles" is illustrated in the following table, in which the examples are presented according to the grammatical case which would be seen in the equivalent English relative clause.

Turkish extensively uses agglutination to form new words from nouns and verbal stems. People outside can see him very easily.

He begins to walk from the back of the airplane toward the front of the airplane, bouncing his basketball as he goes. Maybe the distance between the places where his basketball hits the floor of the airplane is about one meter or one yard.

If some people are under the airplane they can mark the place directly under the airplane where the ball hits the floor. Those marks are a meter or maybe a yard apart.

So everybody agrees that the bounces are about a meter or a yard apart. Later the plane takes off. People still watch it from on the ground. But this time bounce number 5 is over a place in Gibraltar and bounce number 6 is over a place in Spain.

The distance between bounces is measured in kilometers or miles on the ground, but the people on the plane get the same answers they did while the plane was on the ground.

Now suppose some people are on a big spaceship and they want to make a very accurate clock. So they make a long tunnel between decks from what would be like the top of an airplane to what would be the bottom of an airplane.

At one end they put a mirror, and at the other end they put a simple machine. It shoots one short burst of light toward the mirror and then waits.

The light hits the mirror and bounces back. They decide that a certain number of bounces will be defined as a second, and they make the machine change the seconds counter every time it has detected that number of bounces.

Every time it changes the seconds counter it also flashes a light out through a porthole under the machine. So somebody out taking a space walk will see the light flashing every second.

We know the speed of light, and we can easily measure the distance between the machine and the mirror and multiple that to give the distance the light travels.

So we have both d and r , and we can easily calculate t. The people on the spaceship compare their new "light clock" with their various wrist watches and other clocks, and they are satisfied that they can measure time well using their new light clock.

Now this spaceship happens to be going very fast. It is not coming to Earth to visit, but it does happen to fly over the North Pole.

There is a science station with a telescope at the North Pole. They see a flash from the clock on the space ship, and then they see another flash.

Only the flashes do not come a second apart. They come at a slower rate. The reason is that the situation is like the basketball player on the airplane.

The ball hits the floor and bounces. That is like the light hitting the mirror and being reflected. That is like the light hitting the machine and triggering a new burst of light.

Depending on how fast the plane is going, it might be a kilometer or even a mile away. So the man on the North Pole sees the light flash on the side of the spaceship when it is thousands of miles away, and then sees the next flash when the spaceship has gotten thousands of miles closer.

That is why the clock on the spaceship is not flashing once a second for the Earth observer. It is a famous equation in physics and math that shows what happens when mass changes to energy or energy changes to mass.

The "E" in the equation stands for energy. Energy is a number which you give to objects depending on how much they can change other things. For instance, a brick hanging over an egg can put enough energy onto the egg to break it.

A feather hanging over an egg does not have enough energy to hurt the egg. There are three basic forms of energy: Two of these forms of energy can be seen in the examples given above, and in the example of a pendulum.

A cannonball hangs on a rope from an iron ring. A horse pulls the cannonball to the right side. When the cannonball is released it will move back and forth as diagrammed.

It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places causes friction , and the friction takes away a little energy all the time.

If we ignore the losses due to friction, then the energy provided by the horse is given to the cannonball as potential energy. It has energy because it is up high and can fall down.

As the cannonball swings down it gains more and more speed, so the nearer the bottom it gets the faster it is going and the harder it would hit you if you stood in front of it.

Then it slows down as its kinetic energy is changed back into potential energy. When energy moves from one form to another, the amount of energy always remains the same.

It cannot be made or destroyed. This rule is called the "conservation law of energy". For example, when you throw a ball, the energy is transferred from your hand to the ball as you release it.

But the energy that was in your hand, and now the energy that is in the ball, is the same number. For a long time, people thought that the conservation of energy was all there was to talk about.

When energy transforms into mass, the amount of energy does not remain the same. When mass transforms into energy, the amount of energy also does not remain the same.

However, the amount of matter and energy remains the same. Mass is the amount of matter there is in some body. If you knew the number of protons and neutrons in a piece of matter such as a brick, then you could calculate its total mass as the sum of the masses of all the protons and of all the neutrons.

Electrons are so small that they are almost negligible. Masses pull on each other, and a very large mass such as that of the Earth pulls very hard on things nearby.

You would weigh much more on Jupiter than on Earth because Jupiter is so huge. You would weigh much less on the Moon because it is only about one-sixth the mass of Earth.

Weight is related to the mass of the brick or the person and the mass of whatever is pulling it down on a spring scale — which may be smaller than the smallest moon in the solar system or larger than the Sun.

Mass, not weight, can be transformed into energy. Another way of expressing this idea is to say that matter can be transformed into energy.

Units of mass are used to measure the amount of matter in something. The mass or the amount of matter in something determines how much energy that thing could be changed into.

Energy can also be transformed into mass. If you were pushing a baby buggy at a slow walk and found it easy to push, but pushed it at a fast walk and found it harder to move, then you would wonder what was wrong with the baby buggy.

Then if you tried to run and found that moving the buggy at any faster speed was like pushing against a brick wall, you would be very surprised.

The truth is that when something is moved then its mass is increased. Human beings ordinarily do not notice this increase in mass because at the speed humans ordinarily move the increase in mass in almost nothing.

As speeds get closer to the speed of light, then the changes in mass become impossible not to notice. The basic experience we all share in daily life is that the harder we push something like a car the faster we can get it going.

But when something we are pushing is already going at some large part of the speed of light we find that it keeps gaining mass, so it gets harder and harder to get it going faster.

It is impossible to make any mass go at the speed of light because to do so would take infinite energy.

Sometimes a mass will change to energy. Common examples of elements that make these changes we call radioactivity are radium and uranium.

An atom of uranium can lose an alpha particle the atomic nucleus of helium and become a new element with a lighter nucleus.

Then that atom will emit two electrons, but it will not be stable yet. It will emit a series of alpha particles and electrons until it finally becomes the element Pb or what we call lead.

By throwing out all these particles that have mass it has made its own mass smaller. It has also produced energy. In most radioactivity, the entire mass of something does not get changed to energy.

In an atomic bomb, uranium is transformed into krypton and barium. There is a slight difference in the mass of the resulting krypton and barium, and the mass of the original uranium, but the energy that is released by the change is huge.

The c 2 in the equation stands for the speed of light squared. About 60 terajoules were released by the atomic bomb that exploded over Hiroshima.

The idea of a Bose-Einstein condensate came out of a collaboration between S. Einstein himself did not invent it but, instead, refined the idea and helped it become popular.

In classical physics, momentum is explained by the equation:. When Einstein generalized classical physics to include the increase of mass due to the velocity of the moving matter, he arrived at an equation that predicted energy to be made of two components.

One component involves "rest mass" and the other component involves momentum, but momentum is not defined in the classical way.

The equation typically has values greater than zero for both components:. A photon has no rest mass, but it has momentum. Light reflecting from a mirror pushes the mirror with a force that can be measured.

This famous "mass-energy relation" formula usually written without the "0"s suggests that mass has a large amount of energy, so maybe we could convert some mass to a more useful form of energy.

The nuclear power industry is based on that idea. The General Theory of Relativity was published in , ten years after the special theory of relativity was created.

Spacetime is the fact that we have a four-dimensional universe, having three spatial space dimensions and one temporal time dimension. Any physical event happens at some place inside these three space dimensions, and at some moment in time.

According to the general theory of relativity, any mass causes spacetime to curve, and any other mass follows these curves. Bigger mass causes more curving.

This was a new way to explain gravitation gravity. General relativity explains gravitational lensing, which is light bending when it comes near a massive object.

General relativity also set the stage for cosmology theories of the structure of our universe at large distances and over long times.

Einstein thought that the universe may curve a little bit in both space and time, so that the universe always had existed and always will exist, and so that if an object moved through the universe without bumping into anything, it would return to its starting place, from the other direction, after a very long time.

He even changed his equations to include a "cosmological constant," in order to allow a mathematical model of an unchanging universe.

The general theory of relativity also allows the universe to spread out grow larger and less dense forever, and most scientists think that astronomy has proved that this is what happens.

When Einstein realized that good models of the universe were possible even without the cosmological constant, he called his use of the cosmological constant his "biggest blunder," and that constant is often left out of the theory.

However, many scientists now believe that the cosmological constant is needed to fit in all that we now know about the universe. A popular theory of cosmology is called the Big Bang.

According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed 15 billion years ago, in what is called a " gravitational singularity ". This singularity was small, dense, and very hot.

According to this theory, all of the matter that we know today came out of this point. Einstein himself did not have the idea of a " black hole ", but later scientists used this name for an object in the universe that bends spacetime so much that not even light can escape it.

They think that these ultra-dense objects are formed when giant stars, at least three times the size of our sun, die.

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